Numbering the Elements

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Numbering the Elements In 1913 British physic H. G. J., Moseley generated characteristic x rays for as  many elements as he could finds-be found 38-by using them as targets for electron bombardment in an evacuated tube of his own design. By means of a trolley manipulated by strings. Moseley was able to move the individual targets […]

The Characteristic X-Ray Spectrum

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The Characteristic X-Ray Spectrum We now turn our attention to the two peaks ofFig. 41-14, labeled K” and K/3′ These (and other peaks that appear at wavelengths beyond the wavelength range displayed inform the characteristic x-ray spectrum of the target material. The peaks arise in a two-part process. (I) An energetic electron strikes an atom in the target and, […]

X Rays and the Numbering of the Elements

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X Rays and the Numbering of the Elements When a solid target, such as solid copper or tungsten, is bombarded with electrons whose kinetic energies are in the kilo electron-volt range, electromagnetic radiation called x rays is emitted. Our concern here is what these rays-whose medical,  dental, and industrial usefulness is so well known and widespread-can teach us […]

Building the Periodic Table

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Building the Periodic Table The four quantum numbers of Table 41-1 identify the quantum states of individual electrons in a multielectron atom. The wave functions for these states. however. are not the same as the wave functions for the corresponding states of the hydrogen  atom because. in multielectron atoms. the potential energy associated with a given electron […]

Multiple Electrons in Rectangular Traps (PROBLEMS)

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Multiple Electrons in Rectangular Traps  (PROBLEMS) To prepare for our discussion of multiple electrons in atoms. let us discuss two electrons confined to the rectangular traps . We shall again use the quantum numbers we found for those traps when only one electron was confined. However. here we shall also include the spin angular momenta of the two […]

Multiple Electrons in Rectangular Traps

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Multiple Electrons in Rectangular Traps To prepare for our discussion of multiple electrons in atoms. let us discuss two electrons confined to the rectangular traps of Chapter 40. We shall again use the quantum numbers we found for those traps when only one electron was confined.  However. here we shall also include the spin angular momenta of […]

The Paull Exclusion Principle

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The Paull Exclusion Principle In Chapter 40 we considered a variety of electron traps. from fictional one-dimension altars to the real three-dimensional trap of a hydrogen atom. In all those examples.we trapped only one electron, However. when we discuss traps containing  two or more electrons (as we shall in the next two sections). we must consider […]

Magnetic Resonance

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Magnetic Resonance As-we discussed briefly in Section 32-4, a proton has an intrinsic spin angular momentum S and an associated spin magnetic dipole moment Ii that are in the same direction (because the proton is positively charged). If a proton is.located in a uniform  magnetic field jj directed along a z-axis, the z component IJ.: of the […]

The Meaning Of the Results

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The Meaning Of the Results In the original Stem-Gerlach experiment, two spots of silver were formed on the glass plate, not a vertical line of silver. This means that the component I-Lz along jj (and z) could not have any value between – J.L and +J.L as classical physics predicts.  0  instead, J.L:is restricted to only two […]

The Experimental Surprise

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The Experimental Surprise What Stem and Gerlach found was that the atoms formed two distinct spots on the0 glass plate, one spot above the point where they would have landed with no deflection  and the other spot just as far below that point. This two- spot result can be seen in the plots of  which shows […]