REVIEW & SUMMARY Conduction Of Electrictiy In Solid

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REVIEW & SUMMARY  Conduction Of Electricity In  Solid The Confinement Principle The confinement principle applies to waves of all kinds. including waves on a string and the mailer waves of quantum physics. It states that confinement leads t o quantization-that is. to the existence of discrete states with discrete energies. An Electron in an Infinite Potential Well An […]

The Light Emitting Diode (LED)

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The Light Emitting Diode (LED) Nowadays, we can the brightly colored “electronic” numbers that glow at us from cash registers and gasoline pumps. microwave ovens and alarm clocks. all we canner seem te co without the invisible infrared lilacs that control elevator  dCHtrsand operate television sets via remote control. In nearly all cases this light is,e.matt fern junction operating […]

The Junction Rectifier

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The Junction Rectifier Look now at Fig. 42-12. It shows that. if we place a potential difference across a p-n junction in one direction (here labeled + and “Forward bias”), there will be a current through the junction, However, if we reverse the direction of the potential difference, there will be approximately zero current through the junction. One application […]

The P-N Junction

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The P-N Junction A p-n junction is a single semiconductor crystal that has been selectively doped so that one region is n-type material and the adjacent region is p-type material. Such junctions are at the heart of essentially all semiconductor devices. We assume, for simplicity, that the junction has been formed mechanically, by jamming together a bar of n-type […]

Semiconductors

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Semiconductors semiconductor is like that of an insulator. The main difference is that the semiconductor has a much smaller energy gap EI/ between the top of the highest filled band (called the valence band) and the bottom of the vacant band just above it (called  the conduction band). Thus, there is no doubt that silicon (Ell = […]

Metals

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Metals The feature that defines a metal is that, as  shows, ~ highest occupied energy level falls Somewhere nellie “middle of an .energy band. If we’ apply a potential difference across a-metal, a current can exist because there are plenty of vacant levels at nearby higher energies into which electrons (the charge carriers in a metal) can jump. Thus, […]

Energy Levels in a Crystalline Solid

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Energy Levels in a Crystalline Solid The distance between adjacent copper atoms in solid copper is 260 pm. Figure 42-2a shows two isolated copper atoms separated by a distance r that is much greater than that. Asshodfws, each of these isolated neutral atoms stacks up its 29 electrons in an array of discrete subshells, as follows:     […]

The Electrical Properties of Solids

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The Electrical Properties of Solids We shall examine only crystalline solids-that is, solids whose atoms are arranged in a repetitive three-dimensional structure called a lattice. We shall not consider such solids as wood, plastic, glass, and rubber, whose atoms are not arranged in such repetitive patterns. Figure 42-1 shows the basic repetitive units (the unit cells) of the lattice […]

SOLIDS

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SOLIDS You have seen how well quantum physics works when we apply it to questions .involving individual atoms. In this chapter we hope to show, with a single broad example, that this theory works just as well when we apply it to questions involving assemblies of atoms in the form of solids. Every solid has an enormous range of […]

Conduction of Electricity in Solids

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Conduction of Electricity in Solids A few of the workers at the Fab 11 factory at Rio Rancho, New Mexico. The plant, which represents an Investment of $2.5 biWon, has a floor area equivalent to that of about two dozen football fields. According to lilt – I New York on a ~e! MeJlco is probably the p19st the […]