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X-Ray Diffraction X rays are electromagnetic radiation whose wavelengths are of the order of  I A (= 10-10 m). Compare this with a wavelength of 550 nm (= 5.5 X 10-7 m) at the center of the visible spectrum.  shows that x rays are produced   hen electrons escaping from a heated filament Fare accelerated by […]

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Dispersion and Resolving Power Compared The resolving power of a grating must not be confused with its dispersion.  shows the characteristics of three gratings, all illuminated with light of wave lengthA = 589 nm, whose diffracted light is viewed in the first order  You should’ verify that the values of D and R as given […]

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Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power Dispersion  To be useful in distinguishing wavelengths that are close to each other (as in a grating’, spectroscope), a grating must spread apart the diffraction lines associated with the various wavelengths. This spreading, called dispersion, is defined as                     For small enough angles, we […]

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Diffraction Gratings One of the most useful tools in the study of light and of objects that emit and absorb light is the diffraction grating. This device is somewhat like the double-slit arrangement of  but has a much greater number N of slits, often called rulings,  perhaps as many as several thousand per millimeter. An idealized grating […]

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Diffraction by a Circular Aperture Here we consider diffraction by a circular aperture- that is, a circular opening such as a circular lens, through which light .  shows the image of a distant point source of light (a star, for instance) formed on photographic film placed in the focal  of a converging lens. This image is not a […]

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Intensity in Single Slit Diffraction  Qualitatively In Section 37-2 we saw how to find the positions of the minima and the maxima i a single-slit diffraction pattern. Now we turn to a more general problem: find a expression for the intensity I of the pattern as a function of e, the angular position a point on a […]

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Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating the Minima We can repeal this analysis for any other pair of rays originating at corresponding points in the two zones (say, at the midpoints of the zones) and extending to point PI_ Each such pair of rays has the same path length difference (a/2) sin O.  Setting this common path […]

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Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating the Minima Let us now examine the diffraction pattern of plane waves of light of wavelength A  that are diffracted by a single. long. narrow slit of width a in an otherwise opaque screen B, as shown in cross  section in . (In that figure, the slit’s length  extends into […]

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The Fresnel Bright Spot Diffraction finds a ready explanation in the wave theory of light. However, this theory, originally advanced in the late 1600s by Huygens and used 123 years later by Young to explain double-slit interference, was very slow in being adopted, largely because it ran counter to Newton’s theory that light was a stream of particles. Newton’s […]

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Diffraction and the Wave Theory of Light In Chapter 36 we defined diffraction rather loosely as the flaring of light as it emerges from a narrow slit. More than just flaring occurs, however, because the light produces an interference pattern called a dilTraction pattern. For example, when monochromatic light from a distant source (or a laser) passes through […]