Optical Instruments

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Optical Instruments The human eye is a remarkably effective organ, but its range can be extended in many ways by optical instruments such as eyeglasses, simple magnifying lenses, motion picture projectors, cameras (including TV cameras), microscopes, and tell-  ” scopes. Many such devices extend the scope of our vision beyond the visible range;satellite-borne infrared cameras and x-ray […]

The Refracting Surface Formula

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The Refracting Surface Formula The incident ray from point object 0 in 0 that falls on point a of a spherical refracting surface is refracted there according to n, sin 0, = n2 sin °2, If a is small, 0 , and ~ will also be small and we can replace the sines of theseangles with the […]

The Thin Lens Formulas

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The Thin-Lens Formulas Our plan is to consider each lens surface as a separate refracting surface, and to use the image formed tJy the first surface as the object for the second. We start with the thick glass “lens” of length L in Fig. 35-21a whose left and right refracting surfaces are gr ound to radii r’ […]

Three Proofs

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Three Proofs The Spherical Mirror Formula Figure 35-19 shows a point object 0 placed on the central axis of a concave spherical mirror. outside its center of curvature C. A ray from 0 that makes an angle a with the axis intersects the axis at / after reflection from the mirror at a. A ray that leaves o […]

Refracting Telescope

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Refracting Telescope Telescopes come in a variety of forms. The form we describe here is the simple refracting telescope that consists of an objective and an eyepiece; both are representedin Fig. 35-18 with simple lenses. although in practice, as is also true for most  microscopes, each lens is actually a compound lens system.The lens arrangements for […]

Compound Microscope

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Compound Microscope           Fig. 35-17 A thin-lens representation  of a compound microscope (not to scale).he objective produces a real image I of object 0just inside the focal point  F; of the eyepiece. Image I then acts as an object for the eyepiece, which produces a virtual final image I’ that  s seen by the […]

Optical Instruments

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Optical Instruments The human eye is a remarkably effective organ, but its range can be extended in many ways by optical instruments such as eyeglasses, simple magnifying lenses, motion picture projectors, cameras (including TV cameras), microscopes, and  ” scopes. Many such devices extend the scope of our vision beyond the visible range satellite-borne infrared cameras and x-ray microscopes […]

Locating Images of Extended Objects by Drawing Rays

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 Locating Images of Extended Objects by Drawing Rays Figure 35-l4a shows an object 0 outside focal point FI of a converging lens. We can graphically locate the image of any off-axis point on such an object (such as the tip of the arrow in Fig. 35-14a) by drawing a ray diagram with any two of three special rays […]

Images from Thin Lenses

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Images from Thin Lenses shows a thin lens with convex refracting surfaces, or sides. When rays that are parallel to the central axis of the lens are sent through the lens, they  refract twice, as is shown enlarged in Fig. 35-12b. This double refraction causes therays to converge and pass through a common point F2 at […]

Thin Lenses

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Thin Lenses A lens is a transparent object with two refracting surfaces whose central axes coincide. The common central axis is the central axis of the lens. When a lens is  surrounded by air, light refracts from the air into the lens, crosses through the lens, and then refracts back into the air. Each refraction can […]