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Organ pipes Broadly speaking, the pipes of an organ are divided into two classes called flue pipes and reeds respectively. They may be either closed (stopped) or open. Open pipes have a more brilliant tone than stopped pipes, as they are able to produce more overtones. In the case of a flue pipe a jet of air impinges […]

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Resonance in open pipes Resonance may be obtained with a tuning fork and a pipe open at both ends, in which case there is an antinode at each end and a node in the middle. Bearing this in mind, we should expect the shortest length of open pipe which resonates to a given fork to be twice […]

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To measure the velocity of sound in air by means of a resonance tube We saw on page 315 that the velocity of sound is given by the formula and hence if we can find the wavelength, A, of the sound wave emitted by a standard tuning fork of frequency, f, we may easily calculate […]

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Stationary wave in a resonance tube Another way of explaining the air vibration in a tube is to regard it as resulting from the formation of a stationary longitudinal sound wave. In the first position of resonance a node is formed at the bottom of the tube and an anti node at the top. It is easy to […]

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Forced vibrations When a vibrating tuning fork is held close to the ear the sound is heard quite loudly, but the loudness falls off rapidly as the fork is moved away. Since the prongs are of very small area, we may regard the fork as an approximately point source of energy, and allowing for auenuation (page 307), […]

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Relation between length of air column and wavelength Consider the first position of resonance and suppose the lower fork prong is in its extreme upper position. As the prong moves downward through half a vibration it sends a pulse of compression down the tube, which is reflected from the water surface and returns to the mouth of the […]

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The resonance tube Resonance in a closed tube is usually studied by means of the apparatus shown in Fig. 29.6. Raising or lowering the water reservoir increases or decreases the effective length of the air column in the glass tube. The same figure also illustrates a simpler form of apparatus known as the resonance jar. A glass […]

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Resonance Everyone knows that the best way to set a child’s swing in motion is to give it small pushes in time with the natural period of the swing. This is an example of a general principle in physics which is called resonance. Resonance is said to occur whenever a particular body or system is set in […]

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To measure the frequency of a tuning fork by using a sonometer The sonometer is tuned first to unison with a standard fork of known frequency and the length of the wire noted. Keeping the tension constant, it is now tuned to the unknown fork by altering the length only. Suppose the frequencies, in Hz, of the standard […]

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Other factors which affect the frequency of a vibrating string (a) Tension. The effect of tension can be investigated if the length of the string is kept constant while the tension is altered to bring the wire into unison with a number of standard forks in turn. The results show that the frequency is proportional to the […]