Angular Momenta and Magnetic Dipole Moments
Every quantum state of an electron in an atom has an associated orbital angular momentum and a corresponding orbital magnetic dipole moment. Every electron. whether trapped in an atom or free. has a spin angular momentum and a corresponding spin magnetic dipole moment. We discuss these quantities separately first. and then in combination.
Orbital Angular Momentum and Magnetism
‘The magnitude L of the orbital angular momentum rof an electron in an atom is quantized; that is. it can have only certain values. These values are.
in which I is the orbital quantum number and ~ is h/27r. According to Table 4H. I must be either zero or • positive integer.no greater !!Ian n – I. For a: state with II == 3, for example, only, and I = (fm permitted, As we discussed in Section 32-4. a magnetic dipole is associated with the orbital angular ~tum rof an electron in an atom. This magnetic dipole has an orbital.
As we discussed in Section . an electron has an intrinsic magnetic dipole that is associated with its spill angular momentum S.whether the electron is confined to an atom or free. This magnetic dipole has a spin magnetic dipole moment ii. which is related to the spin angular momentum by.
Figure 41-6 shows the two quantized components S: of the se!n angular momentum for an electron and the associated orientations of vector S. It also shows the quantized components J.Ls., of the spin magnetic dipole moment and the associated orientations of is.