Applications of X-rays

Applications of X-rays

The X-ray photographs or radiographs used in medical practice are made by allowing X-rays to pass through parts of the body and on to a photographic film. X-rays are used in hospitals also in the treatment of malignant growths, as it is found that cancer cells can be destroyed by this means. Nevertheless, great care is always taken to avoid unwanted doses of this radiation, as these have a harmful effect on normal cells also which often does not become apparent until some years afterwards. Before this danger was realized many of the early experimenters became very ill after working with X-rays, and a number lost their lives. Nowadays X- Ray tubes are always surrounded by lead shields to absorb stray radiation.In industry X-ray photographs are used to reveal hidden flaws III metal castings
and welded joints (Fig. 44.9). Fig. 44.10 shows how X-radiography is used to detect alterations which have been made to works of art. The technique owes its success to the fact that pigments containing lead compounds absorb X-rays more strongly than those which contain lighter elements.

(a) 2 million volt X-ray equipment being used to examine the seam weld of a fusion-welded pressure vessel. The inset picture is a reproduction of the radiograph showing a defective joint
(a) 2 million volt X-ray equipment being used to examine
the seam weld of a fusion-welded pressure vessel. The inset
picture is a reproduction of the radiograph showing a defective
joint
(b) X-ray photograph of a boiling plate taken at the Electricity Council's Appliance Testing Laboratories at Leatherhead, Surrey. The picture reveals that the element spiral is wound uniformly, thus avoiding the development of dangerous "hot-spots" which would lead to local high temperature rise and early breakdown. All kinds of electrical equipment is tested at the laboratories to the advantage of manufacturer and consumer alike
(b) X-ray photograph of a boiling plate taken at
the Electricity Council’s Appliance Testing
Laboratories at Leatherhead, Surrey. The picture
reveals that the element spiral is wound uniformly,
thus avoiding the development of dangerous
“hot-spots” which would lead to local high temperature
rise and early breakdown. All kinds of
electrical equipment is tested at the laboratories to
the advantage of manufacturer and consumer alike
St. Sebastian by Francia. X-ray photograph superimposed, showing original head overpainted
St. Sebastian by Francia. X-ray photograph
superimposed, showing original head overpainted
Share This