Electrons in solids. and semiconductor devices

The astable multivibrator

The astable multivibrator A multivibrator circuit containing resistors is a basic memory element. But the two transistor switches in such a circuit can also be linked by capacitors. Their behaviour will be different because the current through a capacitor is not constant. As the plates of the capacitor become charged, the potential difference between them increases. This voltage …

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Showing the voltage swing of a transistor

Showing the voltage swing of a transistor A transistor can be used as an amplifier or as a switch. To understand the second of these, its voltage behaviour must be investigated. Fig. 45.15 shows a similar circuit to Fig. 45.14, but this time with a load resistor (R2), and with voltmeters to measure what is happening. To vary …

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