# Strings and pipes

## Strings and Pipes

Stationary waves A stationary wave is formed when two equal progressive waves are superposed on one another when travelling in opposite directions. About the middle of the nineteenth century a German professor of physics called Franz Melde devised a method of demonstrating transverse stationary waves in a string. One end of a string passes over a pulley and is …

## The sonometer

The sonometer When experiments are being made to study the behavior of vibrating strings a sonometer is used (Fig. 29.3). This consists of a long sounding board or box with a peg at one end and a pulley at the other. One end of the string or wire is attached to the peg and the other end …

## Overtones in a vibrating string

Overtones in a vibrating string If the sonometer wire vibrates in more than one segment it gives out an overtone. This can be demonstrated in the following manner. The wire is lightly touched with a feather or strip of paper at its center and is simultaneously bowed at a point midway between the center and a bridge. The …

## Stringed instruments

Stringed instruments Inspection of an instrument such as a harp or piano shows that it contains a number of stretched strings which vary in length and thickness. Harp strings (Fig. 29.5) are caused to vibrate by plucking them, while piano strings are struck by felt hammers. In contrast, the violin has only four strings of different thickness but …

## To investigate the relation between the frequency of a stretched string and its length (f x : 1/I)

To investigate the relation between the frequency of a stretched string and its length (f x : 1/I) For this experiment several different tuning forks are required together with a sonometer fitted with a length of thin steel piano wire. The experiment is begun by adjusting the tension so that the length of the wire is as …

## Methods of tuning a sonometer to a tuning fork

Methods of tuning a sonometer to a tuning fork Those who possess an average ear for music find it convenient to adjust the length or tension, as the case may be, until beats are heard when wire and fork are sounded together. A final adjustment is then made until the beats become slower and finally disappear when the …